The present volume is dedicated to the concept of collapse as reflected through different kinds of historical and environmental evidence. A total of twenty-eight in-depth studies provides a heterogenous analyses of the collapse and regeneration processes in societies and civilisations separated in space in time. The individual chapters vary in their locations, characteristics and age. They contribute invaluable observations, both general and specific, concerning the fluctuation of complexity within human history and its consequences for respective societies developing in different contexts – focusing on their inner processes or their ability (or failure) to adapt to environmental dynamics. The outcome may be surprising to some readers as most contributions clearly demonstrate many universal features that connect mankind regardless of its variables such as attained technological stage, degree of complexity or external factors such as climate change. It is hoped that the present book may serve not only as a textbook about our common past but also as a source of inspiration for how we view the world and its possible futures.