The Hack Mechanic Guide to European Automotive Electrical Systems shows you how to think about electricity in your car and then take on real-world electrical problems. The 38 chapters cover key electrical topics such as battery, starter, alternator, ignition, circuits, and relays. Through a practical approach featuring hundreds of full-color illustrations, author Rob Siegel takes the fear-factor out of common electrical projects. You'll get step-by-step troubleshooting procedures ranging from safely jump starting a battery to vehicle energy diagnosis. And you'll find detailed testing procedures for most problematic electrical components on your European car. Essential tools are discussed, with special attention given to the automotive multimeter needed to troubleshoot many modern sensors. The principles can be applied to most conventional internal-combustion-engined vehicles, with a focus on European cars spanning the past six decades. Not intended for hybrid or electric vehicles.